Gravitropism is the regulation of the growth of plants or fungi depending on gravity. Darwin was the first person to scientifically observe this phenomenon, and in his experiments he realized that plant roots grow towards the Earth, and stems and leaves towards the sky.
Plants, like all living things, are dependent on their environment. For plants, especially light and gravity are important in terms of growth direction.
 

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Statocytes are cells that enable plants to perceive the direction of gravity, this process takes place through a simple and mechanistic process.
Statocytes contain starch crystals, these crystals change their distribution depending on the direction of the force and transmit information with the Mechanoreceptor. With the transmitted information, the growth direction of the root is regulated.

Measuring Force And Direction

 

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With a similar mechanical process in humans, the amount and direction of acceleration are measured. Thanks to the structures in the semi-circle channels, the acceleration in 3 dimensions can be measured.
Calcium Carbonate crystals are located on a gel-like structure and special nerve cells. When a certain force acts on a person, the distribution of calcium carbonate crystals changes according to the direction and size of the force.
The altered distribution of calcium carbonate also changes the distribution of the gel-like structure and fires specialized nerve cells. Afterwards, the signals from the inner ear are processed in the brain and balance is achieved with the information sent to the muscles.

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Growing Plants in Space

 

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One of the biggest problems in space is the force of gravity. Astronauts are just fall continuously. Falling motion can also be seen in airplanes that follow a parabolic route.
If you imagine that you are in free fall by conducting a thought experiment like Einstein, you will notice that you feel weightless. Similarly, by having a high horizontal velocity, you can be constantly falling and weightless without hitting the ground using the Earth’s tilt.
The lack of net gravity force causes muscle and bone loss in humans.Similarly, it may be asked that, lack of net force may cause problems in the growth of the roots.

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In experiments on the international space station, plants that receive sufficient light have showed root development.But root development was slower and less than normal.

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The interior of the spacecraft is suitable for human life, the pressure and temperature are also suitable for the growth of plants.
Space farming is an important issue for both long space travels and colonization of other planets.
Plants convert carbon dioxide in the environment into sugar and oxygen. It also supports the psychological determination of the team. Understanding life on Earth is on the road to life in space.

Author

Ömer Özgür

Ömer Özgür

AI TEAM

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